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Moquegua, the old town of Santa Catalina de Guadalcazar, is in the plus large area of the valley part. From a high point of view, it offers a beautiful panorama. The town is located in a volcanic region, the Huaynaputina and Tixani mountains have to be named.

Some historical and archeological researches clearly show that Moquegua was always related to the High plain Titicaca Lake, since the ancient and more recent times, by the cultures Pucara and Tiahuanaco, and to the late ethnic groups Colla and Lupaca. This town, where the time seems to be stopped, took the name of Moquegua around the end of the vice-monarchy. Every year, on November 25th, they celebrate the Spanish foundation of Moquegua and the Saint Catherine holiday too.

Agriculture was its main activity, especially the fruit trees culture and the wine-growing development, its famous wines and macerados are exported to Chili, Bolivia and Argentina. Later, the mining exploitation became its more important activity.